An unnatural lateral curving of the spine is known as scoliosis. It is most typically diagnosed during adolescence or childhood.
These natural curves situate the head above the pelvis and act as shock absorbers during movement, distributing mechanical stress. Scoliosis is commonly characterized as the curvature of the spine in the “coronal” (frontal) plane.
It is determined how much curvature there is by the scoliosis clinic on the coronal plane, and scoliosis is a three-dimensional issue that incorporates the following planes:
- Coronal plane
- Sagittal plane
- Axial plane
Coronal planes are vertical lines parallel to the shoulders that define the front portion (the front end of the body) and the back portion (the back end of the body). The body is divided into right and left halves by the sagittal plane. The axial plane is perpendicular to the ground plane and at right angles to the coronal and sagittal planes.
Scoliosis is characterized according to its aetiology by the scoliosis clinic: idiopathic, congenital, or neuromuscular. Idiopathic scoliosis is the diagnosis when all other reasons are ruled out, and it accounts for around 80% of all instances. The most prevalent kind of scoliosis is adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, which is generally diagnosed during puberty.
Congenital scoliosis: –
Congenital scoliosis is caused by an embryological abnormality of one or more vertebrae and can occur anywhere along the spine. Because one section of the spinal column lengthens slower than the rest, vertebral anomalies induce curvature and other malformations of the spine.
The rate at which scoliosis increases in size as the child grows is determined by the geometry and placement of the anomalies. Congenital scoliosis is frequently identified younger than idiopathic scoliosis since these anomalies are evident at birth.
Neuromuscular scoliosis: –
Scoliosis caused by neurological or muscle problems is referred to as neuromuscular scoliosis. Scoliosis linked with cerebral palsy, spinal cord damage, muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and spina bifida are examples of this. This kind of scoliosis usually advances faster than idiopathic scoliosis and frequently necessitates surgical treatment.
The type of therapy for scoliosis depends on how much it has curved. Children with highly minor curves usually do not require any treatment; however, they may require regular examinations to see whether the curve worsens as they develop.
Bracing or surgery may be required if the spinal curvature is moderate or severe. Consider the following factors:
Maturity: The likelihood of curve progression is minimal if a child’s bones have finished developing. Braces are also more effective in youngsters whose bones are still developing. Bone maturity may be determined via hand X-rays.
Curve severity: Larger curves are more likely to degrade with time.
The scoliosis clinic doctor will first conduct a detailed medical history and may question recent development. Your scoliosis clinic specialist may ask your kid to stand and then bend forward from the waist, arms freely dangling, to see if one feature of the rib cage is more distinct than the other during the physical exam.
Your scoliosis clinic specialist will also complete a neurological examination to screen for:
- Muscle fatigue
- Abnormal reflexes
Your doctor may suggest a brace if your child’s bones are still developing and they have mild scoliosis. A brace will not cure or correct scoliosis, but it typically keeps the curvature from worsening.
A plastic brace, explicitly designed for your body, is the most commonly used brace. Underclothing, this brace is practically undetectable since it runs under the arms, around the rib cage, and the lower back.
Most braces are worn for 13 to 16 hours each day. The efficacy of a brace rises with the number of hours it is worn daily. Children who wear braces can participate in most activities with few limitations. Children can remove the brace to participate in sports or other strenuous activities if necessary.
Braces are removed when there are no further height changes. Girls finish their development at 14, and males at 16, on average, but this varies substantially by the person.